Developing students’ intercultural competence: An introductory lesson plan

June 9th, 2014 | Posted by Merica McNeil in culture | professional development | resources | Uncategorized - (Comments Off on Developing students’ intercultural competence: An introductory lesson plan)

cultural icerberg

Want to talk about culture with your students, but not sure how to break the ice? As a starting point, it can be helpful to find out about their ideas regarding culture and the basis for these ideas. For example, what experiences have they had encountering other cultures? What challenges did they have? How did they deal with these challenges? What were the results? If they knew then what they know now, would they have dealt with the situation differently? If so, how? Discussing questions such as these, especially involving critical incidents, can help set the stage for starting to develop intercultural competence.

Since I had attended CERCLL’s Language Teacher Symposium led by Dr. Carmen King de Ramírez on March 8 on cultural intelligence activities (see details), I knew it was important to engage students in the discussion and find out the origins of their beliefs about other cultures. For example, are their beliefs based on their own experiences or from what they have heard others say about another culture? Carmen kept workshop participants engaged by providing a variety of practical activities that can be used to increase students’ cultural intelligence. She explained and demonstrated a variety of activities, and she also provided a packet of handouts to help teachers be able to implement activities in their classes.

When a colleague was looking for somebody to guest teach a lesson on the link between language and culture, I jumped at the opportunity. Instead of lecturing this class of university students on the chapter on this topic in their course textbook (Basics of Language for Language Learners), their teacher and I decided it would be more appropriate to help this group of students activate their background knowledge of culture based on their experiences. My lesson plan and Powerpoint are attached. Feel free to adapt them to suit your needs.


Powerpoint: Language_and_Culture


Culicover, P. & Hume, E. (2010). Basics of language for language learners. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press.


Penston, J. (n.d.). Visualising the iceberg model of culture. Retrieved from  James Penstone / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Upcoming Workshops on Engaging Chinese Students

May 29th, 2014 | Posted by Merica McNeil in Chinese | professional development | summer workshops | Uncategorized - (Comments Off on Upcoming Workshops on Engaging Chinese Students)

Places are currently still available for CERCLL’s summer workshops on engaging Chinese students, which will be held next Friday, June 6, 2014, in Tucson at the University of Arizona. The workshops are free to attend, but registration is required. There are a limited number of spaces, so register as soon as possible to secure your place.

An overview of the sessions and a link to registration is below:

Session 1: Engaging Chinese Language Students through Instructional Strategies, Activities and Relationships (9 am to noon)

Session 2: Engaging Chinese Language Students using Technology and Multimedia (1 pm – 4 pm)

The presenter for both of these workshops is Eric Chipman (University of Utah Confucius Institute).

This event is co-sponsored by the Confucius Institute at the University of Arizona.

For more details and to register for these or other workshops offered by CERCLL next week, go to the following website and click on “Register Now”:

Training Chinese Teachers in Communicative Language Teaching

December 11th, 2013 | Posted by Merica McNeil in Uncategorized - (Comments Off on Training Chinese Teachers in Communicative Language Teaching)

Chinese teacher training was offered by the Confucius Institute at the University of Arizona on Saturday, December 7 from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. This event was co-sponsored by CERCLL and attended mostly by K-12 teachers of Chinese working in Arizona. The morning workshop was led by Dr. Wenhao Diao, who recently joined The University of Arizona as an Assistant Professor in the Department of East Asian Studies and as an affiliated faculty member in the graduate program of Second Language Acquisition and Teaching. Prior to moving to Tucson in August 2013, Dr. Diao completed her Ph.D. in Second Language Acquisition at Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Diao has taught Chinese language, culture, and applied linguistics at various institutions including Carnegie Mellon University, Middlebury College, and the University of Virginia as well as at East China Normal University in Shanghai, China, where she earned her B.A. and M.A. degrees in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language. As an applied linguist, Dr. Diao is especially interested in the intersection of language and culture, particularly in Chinese. To read more about her background and recent publications, see: She is teaching a class on Chinese language teaching methods this Fall semester at the UA, which she’ll teach again in two years; this workshop brings some of that course to the K-12 community. You can also see her present a paper at January’s 2014 Intercultural Competence conference where the title of her talk is: Study Abroad: Being a Laowai or Becoming Like a Chinese.

In Dr. Diao’s workshop entitled “Communicative Language Teaching for Chinese: When, How, and for What Purposes?” she provided clear explanations and examples of how to effectively use communicative language teaching (CLT) in teaching Chinese. After the introduction and rationale, Dr. Diao briefly demonstrated three language teaching methods including grammar translation, the audio-lingual method, and CLT, which focuses on promoting language learners’ communicative competencies. She explained the goals of CLT, which include grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic, strategic, and actional competences. As she emphasized, in CLT, students use the target language a great deal through communicative activities, which enables them to develop their communicative competencies. Dr. Diao explained how the teacher’s role in CLT changes in various stages of the lesson. More specifically, in the beginning, the teacher acts as a facilitator by preparing effective materials and tasks. When students are doing the communicative tasks, teachers should circulate to see how students are doing, answer any questions, and note where students are struggling. After students have been doing their tasks in small groups, the teacher should address problems, answer questions, and provide clarifications as necessary.

Throughout her workshop, Dr. Diao provided valuable examples of materials and tasks that she designed and used for teaching Chinese, many of which included authentic materials from pop culture. She pointed out that such materials and tasks contain linguistic and cultural content, which can motivate students because they are relevant. One sample included a multimodal poster and discussion questions. A second sample provided a picture strip story from a Chinese comic strip. The original text was deleted, and students needed to create their own interpretation of what was happening. In a third sample called scrambled sentences, each student was given a sentence in Chinese, and students were asked to read their sentences aloud to put themselves in the correct logical order, standing in a line.

The fourth example involved a role play in which some students were employees at the post office, and other students had specific requests or issues. After two minutes, students rotated so that they spoke with five different people, which promoted fluency and enhanced confidence. At the end, students voted on the best staff member in this example activity, which is appropriate for intermediate-level students. Dr. Diao highlighted that key aspects of effective role plays are that they encourage students to initiate, respond, and react. In addition, they include an information gap, meaning students need to communicate in order to find out the missing information from each other to accomplish the task. The role that she provides each student has a description and a specific need, which necessitates students using strategies to solve one or more problems.

Some other examples, which Dr. Diao used included short videos, one of which was of the Chinese version of The Voice, a transnational reality television singing competition. After demonstrating multiple examples, Dr. Diao reviewed how all of them included key elements to promote effective CLT: information gap, choice, and feedback. After highlighting several advantages of CLT including promoting fluency, Dr. Diao also mentioned some of CLT’s limitations. She explained that one challenge of CLT is to develop learners’ accuracy because it can be difficult for a teacher to listen to each student and give individual feedback. Furthermore, because of the preconceptions that learners may have of what language learning should be, some learners may not appreciate CLT. Thus she concluded that CLT is not a cure-all.

In the last part of her presentation, Dr. Diao provided several strategies for specifically promoting accuracy in Chinese pronunciation. She emphasized that language learners need to pronounce correctly because most Chinese people are not accustomed to foreigners’ speech. Since Chinese pronunciation poses great problems for language learners, Dr. Diao provided numerous useful strategies based on her own extensive teaching experience. For example, a teacher can use hand gestures to show students the direction of tones in Chinese pronunciation. She also showed a chart with the International Phonetic Alphabet and gave specific examples of how to help learners produce certain sounds that are typically difficult for English speakers to acquire.

The afternoon portion of the workshop included talks in Chinese by two local high school students who won awards in the 2013 Sixth Annual World “Chinese Bridge” competition: Anne Zlatow and José Antonio Gonzalez Mendoza. Each of these students talked about their experiences learning Chinese over the last four years. They also discussed their participation in the “Chinese Bridge” program, which enabled them to go to China and immerse themselves in the language and culture, an experience they both cherished. When responding to questions from the audience, Anne revealed that motivation was a key factor for her. She said that she loves learning Chinese and practices outside of class all the time, including talking with her friends outside of school and taking additional classes on the weekend at the Tucson Chinese Cultural Center. José shared his keen insight when explaining that if you can learn Chinese, it shows that you can do anything if you work hard enough. This reminds me of Malcolm Gladwell’s idea that if you do something for 10,000 hours, you can become an expert in that area.

At the end of the workshop, audience members were left inspired by these two students’ linguistic accomplishments and motivated to use CLT techniques that Dr. Diao so deftly demonstrated earlier in the day to promote students’ communicative competency.

This workshop was one of a number being offered to Chinese teachers by the Confucius Institute at the University of Arizona and CERCLL. More information will be on available on our websites and you can sign up for announcements on CERCLL’s mailing list here:

For more information about the Confucius Institute at The University of Arizona, see:

Teaching Heritage Languages and Cultures: Hispanic Heritage Month

October 5th, 2012 | Posted by jtparry in Uncategorized - (Comments Off on Teaching Heritage Languages and Cultures: Hispanic Heritage Month)

Within the sphere of foreign language teaching in the United States, there are many heritage language learners. The term ‘heritage language learner’ is difficult to define in second language acquisition (SLA). Here is one definition, from The Center for Applied Linguistics (retrieved from

A heritage language learner is a person studying a language who has some proficiency in or a cultural connection to that language through family, community, or country of origin. Heritage language learners have widely diverse levels of proficiency in the language (in terms of oral proficiency and literacy) and of connections to the language and culture. They are different in many ways from students studying the language as a foreign language.

Since these learners can differ from foreign language learners in their motivations, language proficiency, and levels of cultural understanding, a growing body of research is dedicated to becoming familiar with these learners and their needs. A recent presentation by Olga Kagan, during CERCLL’s Intercultural Competence Conference in January, 2012, highlighted the issues of intercultural competence for heritage language learners. Here is the video of this presentation (which is available along with other CERCLL videos on YouTube):

The paper by Olga Kagan on this topic will also be coming out soon along with the proceedings for ICC 2012.

There are also several efforts to adjust curriculum to this group of learners. This is more clear-cut in programs which have the resources to create separate programs for this, such as the Spanish for Heritage Learners Program at the University of Arizona. This program provides a place for heritage learners of Spanish to flourish in their linguistic and cultural knowledge, and become better aware and proud of their Hispanic heritage. One strong advantage to this separate program for heritage learners is that these students are tested in their language abilities and then given individualized instruction in any of six courses. This program is also very large, with about 600 students per semester. For more information, go to this program’s website at, or download a brochure about it at

This issue is especially relevant right now since this month, from September 15–October 15, is Hispanic Heritage Month. This month has been designated as a time to honor the heritage and culture of Hispanic and Latino Americans, and to recognize their contributions to the US. This month-long commemoration started as a week under President Johnson, until it was expanded into a month and put into law during the time of President Reagan. For more information, here is a site dedicated to Hispanic Heritage Month: